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How could a no-deal Brexit affect cruising yachtsmen?

The Cruising Association and the RYA have both produced an outline document for sailors travelling and sailing within the EU.

In event of a 'no-deal Brexit', the UK and its citizens could leave with few rights and no special consideration. The full implications for cruising yachtsmen are currently unclear, but the Cruising Association's Regulatory & Technical Services Committee (RATS), and the RYA have produced a series of papers that I've copied and pasted parts of here:

It seems obvious that all cruising sailors are likely to be faced with additional bureaucracy and strong enforcement of existing rules and regulations, although the EU has announced an intention to bring this in over a transit period of six to nine months. We could well be stopped more frequently and checked by local officials. The following is a "worst case" scenario but sailors can start to deal with it now and consider preparation if planning to go to Europe soon after Brexit Day.

Passports: Once we leave the EU, it is expected that you will need at least three months' validity on your passport after the date of your planned departure from the EU at the end of any visit. However if there is a no-deal Brexit you will need six months' validity from Brexit Day, so it may be worth renewing your passport before any rush.

Visas: The Schengen visa system is very likely to apply with stays in Europe limited to 90 days in any 180 days. Visa applications may take up to two months to progress in some cases. Note that a Schengen visa is not available at borders and must be applied for from your home country.

Reporting in and out of UK: The rules which currently apply to voyages from UK to non-EU countries are likely to apply to voyages to the EU. Form C1331 must be completed and lodged with HMRC prior to departure and on later return. HMRC and the Border Force are considering replacing this with fully electronic reporting but this will still be several years away.

Reporting in and out of EU: The EU is to introduce from 2020 an electronic reporting system called ETIAS which will be similar to the American ESTA system. Full details are not currently known but could well include reporting at designated ports of entry/exit and flying of flag 'Q'. RATS has no information on EU requirements for reporting immediately after Brexit Day.

Crew lists: Many countries throughout the world require provision of crew lists at border crossings. It saves much hassle if multiple copies of these are carried on board, each with full details as contained on standard passports.

Customs clearance: No change is expected immediately after Brexit. All countries have the right to stop and inspect any vessel within their territorial waters and some require reporting to Customs separately from Immigration.

Freedom of movement: Some Schengen visas permit freedom of movement among and between all EU27 countries but others provide access and movement within one country only. Ensure that each crew member gets the right visa. Note that reporting of border crossings may be required within EU.

VAT: You must be able to prove that VAT has been paid on the yacht. If you do not have an original receipt stating this then apply for a T2L document as soon as possible. Without this you will be subject to Temporary Importation rules, with VAT payable after 18 months, or exit from EU and the entire crew must be non-EU citizens.

Taxation: Under present rules, UK yachts in some EU countries are not subject to local taxation unless they stay for more than 180 days in 12 months. In others local taxes may be imposed at short notice as has already happened in Greece and Italy.

Health insurance: The EHIC system for reciprocal health care will be discontinued on Brexit but may be replaced. Full comprehensive travel and health insurance is advised for all crew and may be required if the stay in the EU is beyond 90 days.

Boat insurance: This will continue to be available but insurance companies have said that costs could rise by up to 20 per cent. Boat insurance is compulsory in some EU states.

Red diesel: It will continue to be illegal for UK boats to use red diesel in their tanks in EU waters. If your marina or port permits, you can fill your tank with white diesel. The effects of the recent ECJ ruling on UK red diesel are not yet clear but will be confined to UK waters. Always carry recent receipts for diesel showing tax paid. CA members can access RATS advice on red diesel use.

Pets: Current regulations concerning carriage of dogs and cats between UK and EU are being reviewed and pet passports will no longer be valid. However it is likely that similar arrangements will be continued.

Roaming charges: The recent agreement to remove roaming charges for UK mobile phone use in EU will be cancelled. Some phone companies have said they will continue free roaming but others have been silent.

Air flights: Disruption soon after Brexit day should be expected but it seems likely that most flights would eventually be reinstated. If cancelled, the cost of flights already booked as part of a